The answer to the question “can fertility problems be hereditary?” depends on the exact cause. There are several factors that can affect fertility. The first is the presence of certain genetic variants. These variations may be hereditary or acquired. For example, some individuals may have an azoospermia gene or Y-chromosome microdeletion. Others may have trisomies, which affect oocyte maturation.
Y-chromosome microdeletion causes azoospermia
Y-chromosome microdeletions are the most common genetic cause of male infertility. They are caused by a deletion of one or more azoospermic factors (AZFs), which encode proteins necessary for spermatogenesis. As a result, the affected spermatocytes are unable to mature.
There is no specific treatment for this disorder. However, sperm from males with this condition can be used for intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI). Oligozoospermic males with this condition can also become pregnant naturally. Some doctors may recommend semen freezing for men with oligozoospermia.
145 protein-altering mutations affect sperm production
Researchers studied the DNA of 185 infertile men and found that 145 of them had mutations that negatively affect male fertility. Of these, 29 affected spermatogenesis and other reproductive processes directly. Many of these mutations affect the RBM5 gene, which plays a key role in the development and maturation of male germ cells.
To be functionally mature, sperm must be motile and possess a fully formed acrosome. GALNTL5 is a member of the polypeptide N-acetylgalactosamine-transferase gene family. Although it is not known whether this protein has glycosyltransferase activity in vitro, the gene’s mouse ortholog has been implicated in spermatogenesis.
Trisomies affect oocyte maturation
Trisomies are genetic conditions that affect the process of oocyte maturation. These disorders are usually inherited from mothers. During the first trimester of pregnancy, both the ovary and the testis germ cells undergo a period of mitotic proliferation. Afterward, male germ cells cease proliferating and enter a protracted arrest phase. In contrast, female germ cells undergo a meiotic prophase in response to a hormone called Stra8 or other meiotic-specific inducers.
Human studies of trisomies have provided extensive information on the effects of maternal age on the process. However, the underlying molecular lesions are not yet fully understood. However, recent studies in model organisms have revealed an intriguing list of candidates. One candidate in particular, the cohesin, is a multi-protein complex that holds sister chromatids together prior to cell division. It is especially important during meiosis I, which helps maintain homologous chromosome connections.
Endocrine defects affect sperm production
The production of sperm in males is greatly affected by defects of the endocrine system. These defects affect the production of sperm by causing oxidative stress, apoptosis, and genetic instability. In addition, they can affect the production of sperm by affecting the tight junctions in sperm.
The production of sperm is a complicated process involving the pituitary gland, testicles, and hypothalamus. Sperm are then transported through delicate tubes to be ejaculated out of the penis. However, if there is a defect in any of these parts, production of sperm will be affected and the sperm count will be low.
SALL4 plays a role in pluripotency of oocytes
The transcription factor SALL4 is a key component of pluripotency. It is involved in maintaining the balance between somatic and ectopic gene expression in pluripotent cells. This transcription factor is essential for maintaining pluripotency of oocytes.
Sall4 regulates the expression of Ddx4, a gene that controls pluripotency. It was found that inactivated Sall4 did not alter expression of pluripotency-related genes in the PGC progenitors. However, it did result in defects in translocation.