The aging population has contributed to the high fertility rate in the past. Perhaps this was due to the COVID-19 pandemic, which increased the intimacy opportunities between couples and the emotional support for parenthood. Other factors may have increased the desire for parenthood in older age groups. If this is the case, we can expect an increase in the fertility rate in the future. But what factors might be causing the current low fertility rate? And what is the effect of economic climate on fertility?
Age-specific fertility rate
The age-specific fertility rate (ASPR) measures fertility in a certain group by age. The calculation of the age-specific fertility rate is the same as that for general fertility rates, except that the calculation uses a shorter time period: women-years of exposure are divided by 1000 to calculate ASPR. This ratio indicates the fertility of a group based on the age of its youngest members. ASPRs can be calculated by using the data from several different sources.
Total fertility rate
The Total Fertility Rate (TFR) is the average number of children a woman will have during her childbearing years. The Total Fertility Rate is a much more accurate measure of fertility than the crude birth rate. It is measured as the average number of children a woman would have at age 50 if she were fertile and had no contraceptives. A woman’s TFR is calculated by combining the Age-Specific Fertility Rate and her age group.
Gross reproduction rate
The gross reproduction rate of who is the estimated number of girls born for every thousand females who pass through their child bearing years. This number is useful for comparing reproductive capacity among different age groups, as it only takes into account female births. Net reproduction rate, on the other hand, attempts to take into account current mortality rates for both the mother and child. Both rates are calculated from the same set of data, but net reproduction rate is more precise, as it takes into account both factors.
Influence of economic climate on fertility
The rise in perceived economic uncertainty may explain the decline in fertility rates. Economic constraints directly affect individuals and families, fueling general perceptions of uncertainty about the future economic environment and employment. Hence, it seems likely that religious and other cultural factors might counteract fertility decline in some regions. However, more research needs to be done to establish the exact relationship between economic climate and fertility rates. We cannot conclude that economic uncertainty is the main reason for the decline in fertility.
Sources of data
Demographers use the Total fertility rate to measure fertility rates. It measures the average number of children born to a woman over her lifetime. It’s also referred to as the ‘lifetime fertility rate’. It is a period metric, not a cohort one. Demographers use this data to estimate current fertility rates. This data is derived from a variety of sources, including censuses, other surveys, and personal histories.