The World Health Organization Fertility Definition

The World Health Organization has developed guidelines for male and female infertility. It continuously updates laboratory manuals on examination of human semen and other normative products, and works closely with member states and non-state actors. It provides country-level technical support. It also conducts research on the cause of infertility.

Ovulation disorders

Ovulation disorders can occur due to a variety of reasons. Some disorders are genetic, while others can be caused by medications or a tumor. Regardless of the cause, these disorders should be included in a woman’s fertility definition. Other disorders may be caused by thyroid glands overproducing certain hormones, such as prolactin.

The most common of these disorders is irregular menstruation. It can also be a symptom of oligomenorrhea. However, a woman’s period should be consistent and not fluctuate too much. A woman’s menstrual cycle should be between 21 to 35 days.


Obesity may affect the fecundity of a woman and affect endometrial and ovarian function. Obese women may be more likely to suffer from a preclinical or clinical miscarriage, which can negatively affect the pregnancy process. Obesity also has a negative impact on the preimplantation embryo. Various studies have reported inconsistent results about the effects of obesity on oocyte development. Some studies found no association between obesity and pregnancy rates, while others noted that obesity was an independent risk factor for miscarriage among women who received donated oocytes.

Obesity may also lead to the development of polycystic ovarian syndrome, a disorder characterized by irregular menstrual cycles and low fertility. Women with elevated sex hormone levels have a higher risk of infertility. In addition, obese women are more likely to have an ovulation disorder than thin women.

Treatment options for infertility

Treatment options for infertility vary depending on the underlying cause. Some of these options include hormonal therapy, lifestyle modifications, and medications. Other options include in vitro fertilization and artificial insemination. Other women may seek gestational surrogacy or adoption as a way to conceive.

Couples therapy may help couples cope with their infertility. It may help improve communication and help couples make decisions that are best for them. Sometimes couples may disagree about which course of treatment is best or whether medical assistance is necessary. Couples therapy helps couples address these issues and discuss how long and how much to spend on treatments.