Despite the recent increase in global fertility rates, some countries have reduced their population. For example, China had a fertility rate of three children per woman between 1975 and 1980. Yemen had 8.9 children per woman in 1985, when the global average was close to four. These countries have also made major changes to their laws regarding child labor and the number of children per woman. The results of this study are quite interesting. You can read more about fertility rates in different countries by reading the articles below.
Total fertility rate
The fertility rate of a country can be a useful measure of a population’s health, but it can also reveal a country’s socioeconomic status. The world fertility rate is determined by the number of children a woman conceives. According to WHO data, fertility rates are high in the United States, Japan, China, and India, but they’re low elsewhere. In some countries, like Thailand, women have as few as one child.
The UN’s World Fertility Report can be found online, as can the Eurostat website, which regularly publishes up-to-date statistics. A more detailed breakdown of fertility statistics can be found on Wikipedia. The average fertility rate is the number of babies a woman bears in her lifetime, and higher levels of education correlate with lower rates. For instance, in 1950s Iran, women had an average of three years of schooling, compared to nine years of education in 2010 Iran.
Total fertility rates vary significantly by income quintiles, depending on the country and the income group. The most recent survey shows the highest fertility rates among lower-income families, while the earliest report shows the highest fertility rates among the richest. The wealth index of countries is estimated using the characteristics of households, such as assets, dwelling materials, and access to utilities. The first quintile represents the poorest 20% of households, while the fifth quintile represents the richest 20%.
In the richest quintiles, fertility rates among women were the highest, while those among the poorest were lower. Similarly, women from the lower-income quintiles had lower fertility rates compared with higher-income women. Women who had lower educational levels and lived in rural areas had lower fertility rates than women in the richest quintile. Nonetheless, women with low levels of education had lower rates of home birth than women in higher-income quintiles.
Child labor restrictions
Recent studies have examined the relationship between child labor bans and fertility rates, and found that child labor laws can have a profound effect on child labour rates. In India, Bharadwaj et al. found that, as expected, the government’s 1986 ban policy increased child labor. The authors posited that, in this case, child labor would have a negative effect on fertility, and, in general, that child labor bans reduce the number of children working.
However, there is considerable variation between countries. The prevalence of child labor has decreased in the United Kingdom over the past century. Still, relative child labour rates vary widely across countries, with the United Kingdom having virtually eliminated child labour over a century. While global trends have improved substantially, progress has been uneven. In Iran, child labor is still illegal for children below the age of 15, and in other countries, this age group is subjected to special protection.
Religious affiliation has a strong association with fertility, with women who practice Catholicism, for example, having higher fertility rates than those who are not. However, there is a striking difference between nominal Catholics and practicing Catholics. In Britain, the number of married Catholic women is higher than the proportion of non-Catholic women, suggesting that the religious norms in France are heterogeneous. In the United States, the fertility rate of women who practice Hinduism is lower than those who practice Protestantism, though this relationship is less robust.
Although differences among religious groups have been identified globally, studies on the United States have focused on Catholic-Protestant differences. In the early twentieth century, studies on the topic documented persistent differences between Protestants and Catholics. The authors attribute the difference in fertility rates to the prohibition of birth control, education, and the unique family culture of the immigrant Catholic population. They also attribute the differences to the prominence of churches and schools in the country.