Why Fertility Rate is Declining

Experts have long known that the global fertility rate is on its way to falling below replacement levels by 2100. The reasons for this decline range from a changing role in society to advances in reproductive health. But recent studies have revealed that if current trends continue, the global fertility rate could fall below 1.7 children per woman by the year 2100. Read on to learn more about these and other factors that may be contributing to the decrease in fertility rates.

Global fertility rate will fall below 1.7 by 2100

If we are to maintain a stable population, we need to increase the rate of births, not decrease it. The current global fertility rate is almost two children for every woman, and demographers predict that this number will fall below 1.7 by 2100. This is not good news for the world’s population. The number of people is growing rapidly, and countries are increasingly choosing to have fewer children. If the current rate of births per woman continues, the world population will be around 9.7 billion in two thousand and one-half by 2100.

Changing roles

While the reasons for declining fertility vary from generation to generation, the overall trend is largely due to changes in women’s roles, employment trends, and advancements in reproductive health. After World War II, the roles of women changed rapidly. The baby boom generation, which was born from 1946 to 1964, had better educational opportunities than previous generations. At the end of the decade, almost half of all women were college graduates.

Employment shifts

The overall decline in fertility has profound consequences for the economy, society and future generations. The baby boomer generation grew up during a time of high fertility, but the post-boomer generation has had fewer children. In the United States, the population has decreased by 50% from 1950 to 2021, primarily due to declining fertility among post-boomer women. The shifts in employment, gender roles, and the general well-being of children have all had an impact on the size of the workforce.

Advances in reproductive health

As education levels increase and access to reproductive health services expand, the declining fertility rate continues to worsen. The demographic community had thought that women would increase their fertility to maintain the population’s demographic balance. However, cohort studies have found that this has not been the case. Instead, declining fertility rates are being attributed to advances in reproductive health and access to contraception. Changing values and preferences are also contributing to declining fertility rates.

Economic uncertainty

The increase in economic uncertainty has been found to negatively affect the number of children a woman conceives. It is also associated with lower consumption and fertility. The World Uncertainty Index, which measures economic uncertainty globally, has found that the level of uncertainty decreases fertility by about 60 percent between the trough and the peak of the baby boom. This relationship is robust to various controls. Therefore, it may explain a procyclical decline in fertility.