Why Older Men Are Less Fertile

Fertility starts declining in men around age 35. The cause of this decline varies widely, and is related to socioeconomic factors. Social transformation has altered lifestyle practices, which can contribute to fertility decline. However, a single, comprehensive theory has yet to be developed. Life expectancy at birth is currently around 18 percent. In addition, life expectancy has fallen by eight percent since the industrial revolution. And, although the decline of fertility is inevitable, many factors contribute to its acceleration.

Men will see a decrease in fertility beginning at age 35

The male sperm quality decreases significantly after age 35 and the number of X chromosomes increases. As men get older, their ability to conceive a child declines as well. That said, it is not impossible to conceive a child later in life, but it will be more difficult than it was when they were younger. Here are some reasons why older men are less fertile than younger ones:

Men’s fertility begins to decline around age 40 to 45 years. Sperm quality declines with age, so the chances of getting pregnant decrease and the time it takes to get pregnant increase. Additionally, children of older fathers have an increased risk of developing mental health problems. Children of men who are older are five times more likely to develop autism spectrum disorder than children of younger fathers. There is a genetic component that may also increase the risk of miscarriage.

Socioeconomic factors can accelerate fertility decline

Changing demographics are one of the most compelling explanations for the acceleration of fertility decline in developing nations. The decline in fertility is accompanied by changes in the age structure of the population, which promotes rapid economic growth. Farmers who diversify their income sources may require more children, but the reduced fertility rates may erode their reproductive capacity and dilute their market-related resources. Even small differences in educational capital may amplify disparities in reproductive outcomes, particularly among farmers and non-farmers.

In high-fertility countries, higher educational attainment is thought to accelerate fertility decline by increasing the opportunity cost for women. According to this theory, higher educational attainment is correlated with a higher TFR, while lower secondary education is less important. In the hypothetical case, an increase in SSA corresponds to a decrease in TFR of 1.22 children. The effect on fertility rates is not as large in low-income countries, but does hold in sub-Saharan Africa.

Life expectancy at birth has fallen to an estimated 18 percent

A key factor in population growth projections is life expectancy at birth, which has declined by about 18 percent in recent decades. The average age of childbearing is increasing at an average rate of 0.1 to 0.4 years per year, compared to the eventual completion of fertility in previous generations. This trend is expected to continue. Despite the current global decline in fertility, life expectancy at birth is expected to rise in the years ahead.

The deteriorating health of many third-world nations has increased the number of diseases, including HIV and malaria. In sub-Saharan Africa, mortality has increased as fertility declines, while the rate of childbearing declined in less-developed countries. In addition to decreasing fertility, more children are dying from diseases related to AIDS. Thus, a rapidly aging population prevents economic development.

Social transformation has impacted lifestyle practices on fertility

There are significant inequities in access to infertility care, especially among Black and Hispanic women. Medicaid covers nearly half of all births in the U.S., yet it does not cover fertility services. Medicaid eligibility is based on low income and the patient’s race. Because of this, many women of color are unable to afford fertility care. In addition, few states have legislation requiring private insurance plans to cover infertility care.

The Liberal welfare regime promotes family formation where the male is the primary breadwinner. At the same time, the labour market is unwelcoming to work-family balance. And the gender system is undergoing a period of transformation. These factors are influencing the fertility intentions of women in terms of parity and gender. However, despite the widespread change in social policy, many families are still at or below critical levels.